Task code

Task code:  T1796 : Q2K122 
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Task 1.

Wireless networking is a method by which computer networks avoid use of costly cables and instead use wireless data connection between network links (Hiroyuka, 2018). Wireless network use radio waves to connect between multiple devices to the internet. These devices usually obtain the signals through antennas stationed in different place. Different types of antennas which are used include; Yagi, horn and cellular antenna.

Yagi Antennas.

Formally known as Yagi-Uda antennas, are directional antennas that consist of multiple elements to form an array. Yagi antennas have a single driven element (typically a half-wave dipole) and a reflector that is located immediately in front and behind the driven element. They are used when communication frequency is above 10MH. They are commonly used in long distance shortwave transmission, terrestrial TV receptions and amateur radios (Cai, 2012).

However, Yagi antennas are advantageous in some ways; they offer a directional radiation pattern of about 50° to 70° beam width which is relatively good. Also they can be easily mounted on vertical structures since they are easy to aim and they are cheap and easy to build compared to other types of antennas. Yagi-Uda antenna also have some weaknesses; they have a limited frequency range which offers a gain of 6-9 dB and the antenna length need do be very long to achieve a high gain. Yagi antennas are sensitive to frequency as their electrical characteristics are based on resonant elements and operations.

Horn antennas.

It’s a type of antenna consisting of flared metal waveguide that directs radio waves into a beam. Horn antennas can both send and receive radio frequency applications of above 300 MHz. They are commonly used as automatic door sensors, microwave radiometers and feed elements for large antennas (Yue, 2018).

Horn antennas exhibit a number of advantages; since they have no resonant elements, they can operate over a wide band width range. They are simple to construct and the waveguide can be connected to a standard coaxial feeder. Also horn antennas can be combined with parabolic antennas to achiever a higher gain. Some limitations of horn antenna are that it doesn’t radiate direct beam due to its spherical front shape and also that the gain of the horn is limited to 20 dB because the level of the gain depend on horns’ aperture dimensions.

Cellular antennas.

It’s a type of antenna whereby the last link is wireless. It consists of cells which can transmit data, voice and other types of content. The cells use different set of frequencies ranging between 800 MHz and 1900 MHz (Wang, 2014). The low frequencies allow carriers to provide services over large area, while higher frequencies allow coverage in a smaller area. They are widely used in broadcast TVs, satellites, mobile phones, radar, broadcast radio and communication receivers (Kahn, 2015).

An advantage of cellular antenna is that it has a wider coverage even to areas where cables can’t be laid and it’s easy to maintain and upgrade once its established. Also, limitations of cellular antenna are that its costly to set up and the performance of its cells is greatly affected by signal loss.

With the above discussion, cellular antennas will dominate future wireless links both medium and long distances due to its wide frequency coverage ranging between 800MHz and 1900Mhz.

Task 2.

With wireless technology, electronic devices are able to transfer data and information from one point to another wirelessly through radio signals. The main types of wireless network protocol include; Wi-Fi, ZigBee and LTE network protocols
Wi-Fi.

It’s a technology that uses radio waves to connect between two devices and runs on IEEE 802.11 standards (Suzhi, 2016). It uses 2.4 GHz UHT and 5.8GHz SHT ISM radio bands and its widely used to connect routers to devices like desktops, smart TVs, tablets and laptops. Wi-Fi Protected Access helps in securing the information across Wi-Fi networks ( Keysight, 2017).
The benefits of using Wi-Fi protocols is that It’s convenient to its users as they can access the network at any location in their networking environment and its relatively cheap to install in places of work. Its limited in terms of security as its prone to hacker attacks and has a limited range of connectivity.

ZigBee.

It’s a wireless technology that operates on radio frequency of 2.4 Ghz and it’s based on IEEE 802.15.4 standards. It’s a low-cost, low-powerless network technology that aims at addressing power conservation issues. It’s can be widely used in different applications like industrial control and home automation ( Misra, 2016).

ZigBee network is beneficial in that its’ easy to set up the network and also that network loads are evenly distributed across the network as it doesn’t have a central controller. This network protocol also has some limitations; it has a limited coverage hence can’t be relied on for outdoor wireless system, it’s not secure as compared to Wi-Fi protocol.

LTE
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is high-speed wireless network that’s majorly used on mobile devices and data terminals (Ramos, 2017). It’s based on GSM/EDGE technologies and its commonly marketed as 4G LTE and Advanced 4G which provides an uplink speed of 50Mbps (Tamoši?nait?, 2018)
An advantage of LTE network is that it decreases the communication traffic of sending data. Its disadvantageous in that existing devices can’t access LTE network features hence high cost to the users to access LTE services.

The management of the local engineering group should emphasize on two wireless network protocol; that is Wi-Fi and LTE because Wi-Fi network protocol more secure for data transmission unlike other network protocols which are vulnerable to hackers. The firm should also adopt LTE network protocol as it offers faster data rate transfers and allow multiple users to use same frequency.

Task 3.

Software Defined Network (SDN) is defined as a type of networking architype that allows separation of data and control forwarding functions. It enables direct programmability on the traffic being sent through the control plane hence it an efficient and flexible networking paradigm. With SDN, different models such as evolutionary and clean sheet are adopted to implement new applications and protocols are deployed that are aimed and meeting different user needs. It suffers the challenge of lack of security and privacy and also it’s a complex wireless network as it requires specification of the interfaces (Bernados ; Zuniga, 2014).
According to Rangisetti (2017), he argues that network zones fall under two categories, namely; a heavy-loaded Macrocell which is a central cell and a Picocell. Each cell has an optimal load distribution (an approximation of Nash Equilibrium Solution) in which the loads are transferable between under-loaded and over-loaded cell. A game theory based approach is used to improve loads distribution within the cellular network depending on the number of users to serve.

References
Cai, Y., Guo, Y. J., ; Bird, T. S. (2012). A Frequency Reconfigurable Printed Yagi-Uda Dipole Antenna for Cognitive Radio Applications. IEEE Transactions On Antennas ; Propagation, 60(6), 2905-2912. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2194654
Hiroyuki, N. (2018). Wireless Access Technologies to Provide Various Services in Future Networks. NTT Technical Review, 16(4), 1-7.

Kahn, C., ; Viswanathan, H. (2015). Connectionless access for mobile cellular networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(9), 26-31. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2015.7263369
Keysight, Ixia announce integrated cellular, Wi-Fi protocol verification. (2017). EE: Evaluation Engineering, 56(10), 5.

Misra, S., Goswami, S., Taneja, C., ; Mukherjee, A. (2016). Design and Implementation Analysis of A Public Key Infrastructure-Enabled Security Framework For Zigbee Sensor networks. International Journal of Communication Systems, 29(13), 1992-2014
Ramos-Cantor, O. D., Belschner, J., Hegde, G., ; Pesavento, M. (2017). Centralized coordinated scheduling in LTE-Advanced networks. EURASIP Journal On Wireless Communications ; Networking, 2017(1), 1-14. doi:10.1186/s13638-017-0904-5
Suzhi Bi, Yong Zeng, and Rui Zhang (May 2016) “Wireless powered communication networks: an overview”Tamoši?nait?, M., Tamoši?nas, V., ; Valušis, G. (2018). Wireless Communications Beyond 5g: Uncertainties Of Terahertz Wave Attenuation Due To RAIN. Lithuanian Journal Of Physics, 58(2), 149-158.

Wang, Y., Vasilakos, A., Jin, Q., ; Ma, J. (2014). Survey on mobile social networking in proximity (MSNP): approaches, challenges and architecture. Wireless Networks (10220038), 20(6), 1295-1311. doi:10.1007/s11276-013-0677-7
Yue, Z., Liu, Y., ; Gong, S. (2018). A novel 2–18 GHz double?ridged horn antenna with simple structure. Microwave ; Optical Technology Letters, 60(7), 1787-1794. doi:10.1002/mop.31248