Prospects for the development of gardens and parks can not be properly evaluated outside the general system of green areas of the city

Prospects for the development of gardens and parks can not be properly evaluated outside the general system of green areas of the city. In this regard, it is necessary to take into account the changes that are observed now in the course of their formation. First of all, it is necessary to note the process of complicating the structure of the system of green areas due to the emergence of all its new elements, the territorial development of cities and agglomerations. The development of a system of green areas in different cities and regions of the country goes along different paths. So, if in large and large cities it is distinguished by a high degree of complexity (the number of components of the elements reaches many hundreds), then in small cities it is much simpler. At the same time, cities with dispersed planning usually have a more complex, decentralized system of landscaping than compact cities
Depending on the complex of the existing urban and natural conditions, the spatial construction of the greening system takes on a very different look. It may be dominated by: isolated green “spots” placed evenly in the development array; several large forest-park wedges reaching the central areas of the city; water park diameter (i.e., a ribbon of parks and embankments crossing the city along the river floodplain or reservoir); a wide strip of greenery, located parallel to the building and adjacent to it (with the linear development of the city); linear-strip placement of green space; external green areas surrounding isolated urban areas (with a decentralized planning structure)
Are you here
Home » Green building » Open spaces in the structure of cities and agglomerations
Open spaces in the structure of cities and agglomerations
Yandex.Direct
Summer language camp in the Czech Republic
educationcenter.cz
18+
4 incredible weeks in the Czech Republic. Excursions, tour. trips with a trip to Italy to the sea

Project declaration on the advertised site
Apartments secondary housing – CIAN
spb.cian.ru
In St. Petersburg . Price selection, convenient search. Verified housing!

Project declaration on the advertised site. Developer: PARK LLC
Apartments in Krasnogorsk from 2.4 million
apartments-in-Krasnogorsk.RF
Apartments from 2.4 million rubles with access to the park. Yard without cars, kindergarten.
Green buildingThe system of urban greenery
Prospects for the development of gardens and parks can not be properly evaluated outside the general system of green areas of the city. In this regard, it is necessary to take into account the changes that are observed now in the course of their formation. First of all, it is necessary to note the process of complicating the structure of the system of green areas due to the emergence of all its new elements, the territorial development of cities and agglomerations. The development of a system of green areas in different cities and regions of the country goes along different paths. So, if in large and large cities it is distinguished by a high degree of complexity (the number of components of the elements reaches many hundreds), then in small cities it is much simpler. At the same time, cities with dispersed planning usually have a more complex, decentralized system of landscaping than compact cities (Fig. 2.3).

Depending on the complex of the existing urban and natural conditions, the spatial construction of the greening system takes on a very different look. It may be dominated by: isolated green “spots” placed evenly in the development array; several large forest-park wedges reaching the central areas of the city; water park diameter (i.e., a ribbon of parks and embankments crossing the city along the river floodplain or reservoir); a wide strip of greenery, located parallel to the building and adjacent to it (with the linear development of the city); linear-strip placement of green space; external green areas surrounding isolated urban areas (with a decentralized planning structure) (Fig. 2.4).

Fig. 2.3. The functional structure of the system of green spaces in Moscow. Hierarchy function by significance
Fig. 2.3. The functional structure of the system of green spaces in Moscow. The hierarchy of functions by importance: 1 – local value; 2 – regional value; 3 – city value; 4 – intercity meaning; functions: 5 – recreational; 6 – architectural and artistic; 7 – planning and regulatory; 3 – environmental protection; 9 – spectacular; 10 – sanitary and hygienic; 11 – economic
Fig. 2.4. Classification of urban systems of green spaces by the dominant component
Fig. 2.4. Classification of urban systems of green spaces by the dominant component: a – water-green diameter; b – green wedges; in – the central green core; g – belt (ring, semiring); d – a row of green stripes; e – without pronounced dominant or combined

Achievement of the Soviet urban development is the inclusion of greening activities in the general development plans of the city and towns, the development of scientifically based landscaping schemes, including not only urban residential, but also industrial territories, suburban areas. With such a broad urban planning approach to the design of parks and recreation areas, their role in improving the environment, environmental protection, regulatory and planning activities related to the territorial development of large cities and settlement systems is enhanced. For example, Dievsko-Taromsky recreation area between Dnepropetrovsk and Dneprodzerzhinsk, indicative park on the river. Kalmius between Donetsk and Makeyevka and many others prevent undesirable confluence of urban areas and suburbs, combine urban and suburban massifs of greenery,

The territorial growth of cities, the development of interconnected groups of cities led to the decisive role of large arrays of green spaces and open spaces. Large cities are divided into planning zones and districts, each of which organizes a specific system of park territories. Extensive territorial complexes appeared in Soviet cities, including green areas and open spaces for various purposes. So, in Kiev, Novosibirsk, Gorky, Omsk, Irkutsk and other cities located on both banks of large navigable rivers, water-park diameters are created, combining intracity and suburban landscaping and recreation systems. Parks, gardens and forest parks play a leading role in the formation of such macro-assemblies and remain the main elements of the city-wide system of gardening in general.

The functions of each urban park of culture and recreation in these conditions should be reconsidered and determined as a result of careful study of the urban planning, transport, landscape, demographic situation in adjacent development areas and near areas of mass recreation. Parks in some residential areas are extremely small and the reserves for their expansion are practically absent, therefore some park facilities, such as sports or exhibition facilities, are often transferred to the adjacent territory of a forest-park belt. However, the forest and meadow parks adjacent to the city cannot compensate for all the shortcomings of the existing network of urban parks, in particular, their, as a rule, uneven distribution in the structure of the city.The need for uniform placement of large park areas in terms of the city is confirmed by sanitary and hygienic considerations. Studies of the Central Research Institute of Urban Planning and other institutes have confirmed the special health value of large park and forest-park arrays with an area of ??about 500 … 600 hectares and more, as well as the need to maximize the integration of existing green areas and smaller open spaces by combining separate fragmented areas of greenery and creating new ones. It is necessary to stimulate urban air exchange, increase the transparency of the atmosphere, the intensity of ultraviolet radiation and illumination, as well as to create the most favorable conditions for rest.

However, large tracts in and of themselves are not yet capable of exerting a sufficient health effect on the entire urban development. To do this, they should be as closely connected with the building as transitional links of a linear configuration (green stripes, wide boulevards), complemented by gardens and small parks located among residential buildings, and most importantly, green spaces should occupy at least half of the area of ??the village common green city background.

Thus, parks, gardens and other green areas should be formed in the form of a single developed and continuous territorial system, which will provide the best aeration and wind protection of the city, the maximum sanitizing effect. Due to the fact that green plantations do not have long-range effects (according to various studies, their direct influence, depending on local conditions, is limited to 50 … 200 m), large green arrays and arteries should be complemented by green capillaries. According to preliminary data, the microclimate alternates between the lanes of buildings and greenery (including, if necessary, individual buildings such as schools, etc.) with a width of about 200 … 400 m.