Media is a technology that carries a message to a large number of people as news brings news and printed radios delivering music and news such as televisions or films deliver sound and vision. It is divided into traditional and new media. Traditional media consists of Broadcasting (Radio, Television and film) and prints (newspapers, magazines, books and others). The new media is called the Internet, which deals with all the traditional media. All forms of this media function to collect, process and disseminate information or message of different things to their scattered, anonymous audiences. They educate, awaken, socialize, move and connect them.
In addition, the media not only provides facts and data but also explanations and interpretations of events and situations. Media offers a variety of explanations that link and interpret information to make the reality clear. Unlike regular reporting, interpretation functions provide knowledge. Analyze news, reviews, editorials, and columns is a few examples of interpretation content. Basically, the kind of interpretation content provided by journalists who have a broad knowledge of backgrounds and strong analytical capabilities.
Malaysia is composed of thirteen states, eleven of which are located on the peninsula that extends south from Thailand, with the South China Sea to its east and the Indian Ocean to its west. Singapore lies at the southern tip of peninsular Malaysia. Two states, Sabah and Sarawak, are located on the island of Borneo and are known as “East Malaysia.”
Furthermore, Malaysian television viewing options include air-to-air or “air-to-air” signals from both government (Radio-Television Malaysia, or RTM) and private stations, subscription signals circulated by the microwave, and satellite signals circulated by satellites live telecast. Free television signals to air include from RTM’sTV-1 and TV-2, and signals from private TV-3, Metrovision and NCTV-7. Signals from these stations can be found throughout the peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia through a translator transmitter that broadcasts signals.
In media contains of media conglomarates which means a corporation that is made up of a number of different, seemingly unrelated businesses. In a conglomerate, one company owns a controlling stake in a number of smaller companies, which conduct business separately. Media conglomerations have two integration which is vertical and horizontal.
The Malaysian government has supervised all information circulated through mass media. The government has introduced laws such as the Printing Press Act (1984) and Broadcasting Act (1987). This is to limit political discussions in news or stories that are deemed to deny the government not to be published.
There are four types pattern of media ownership. Which is the state or government, families, private and corporations and public or others.
THE PATTERN OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP
Media is considered the fourth pillar of democracy because it provides information, entertainment resources, debates and discussions, virtual classes, to give insights and opinions. The pattern and distribution of land ownership and use greatly influences the ability to maintain natural resources. Management options, resource demand and ecological processes are influenced by how the land is managed, divided, and mapped. Successful management of success depends on the degree of function relationship across ownership, borders, and landscapes. In Malaysia, there are four media ownership patterns of government or government, family, private and corporations and the public or others.
State and government media are owned by the state or the government of the day (and financed out of public money) and directly controlled by it. It may perform a public service function or it may be a propaganda instrument of the state or government. State and government media is also generally not-for-profit. On average, the state controls approximately 29 percent of news-papers and 60 percent of television stations. The state owns a huge share 72 percen of the top radio stations. On the basis of these findings, for the remaining analysis we classify ownership into three categories. First, state or private (which is the sum of the family, widely held, and employee categories), and other. Television has significantly higher levels of state ownership than newspapers.
Another pattern of media ownership are private and corporations. Private and corporations means a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company’s stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are unquoted company and unlisted company.
In media of Malaysia, one of the private companies is Media Prima. Media Prima Berhad, Malaysia’s largest integrated media group is acquiring 100% of REV Asia Holdings, one of Southeast Asia’s leading digital media groups. The strategic acquisition of REV Asia Holdings demonstrates the firm’s commitment to capitalise on the growing demand for digital content amongst consumers. The acquisition is expected to result in the growth of revenue contributions from Media Prima’s digital platform exponentially.
In political aspects, media Malaysia currently has about 13.6 million Facebook users . This is 48% of the population. It also has the highest Twitter usage in the world. And with such an audience, it is understandable that social media would become an extremely important part of the political sphere. There has been a mass scale digitisation of the ASEAN countries and in the next few decades this population will adopt more digital services to meet their needs. Apart from digitisation, the other important trend is urbanisation. This will create more access to social media, technology and the internet. For example, Facebook helped build a community around the response to the crisis, providing minute-by-minute information and thus mobilising communities.
Third, public or others is one of the pattern of media ownership. Its means that employee organizations, trade unions, political parties, the church, community, not-for-profit foundations, and business associations. Public media have two types which is public service broadcasting (PSB) which is focused on the public good and is independent; and state-owned media which is controlled and funded by the state (tax-payers) and may be more or less focused on the public good, but is sometimes simply a mouthpiece for the government of the day.
The example of public or others is UNESCO defines Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) as “broadcasting made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. PSBs are neither commercial nor state-owned; they are liberate from political interference and pressure from commercial forces. Through PSBs, citizens are informed, educated and also entertained. When guaranteed with pluralism, programming diversity, editorial independence, appropriate funding, accountability and transparency, public service broadcasting can serve as a cornerstone of democracy.
Lastly, families. Families means the family firms of ownership structure in Malaysia. The main features of Malaysian-listed firms is the high caliber of ownership concentration by a family and significant participant of controlling family shareholders in a management. The family shareholders have the impulse to abuse funds at the investment of minority shareholders. Its also cause conflict of interest between family shareholders and minority shareholders. Based on Emerging Markets Committee, 31% of Malaysia’s market capitalisation is accounted by foreign institutional unvestors’ investment in 2010.
THE SOCIAL EFFECT OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP
Media is widely used in Malaysia today. Through media, the media users can get the latest information only in a short period of time. However, it has had a positive impact and also a negative impact on the country, society and economy of the country.
The positive impact of media on society is that people will get something news faster. For example, the overseas news. Even live in the different country, but we can get information quickly through mass media. This will be causing the community to be more sensitive to current issues. Also through Internet usage and mobile phones, its allow people to get out of their cocoons.
This is because when there is a bilateral interaction between society and the others society, then we can see from the perspective of our eyes only. Instead we will make an assessment of the outside community as well. Change of ideas and this opinion is able to encourage the community to work towards the better. Besides, media has a great influence on the media cognitive effects such as the formation of the attitude which is occurs in an environment related to economic, political, religious, and security nor current news.
Another social effects of media ownership are society like to believe in news without knowing their validity. In Malaysia the use of social media is so widespread that many citizens subscribe to multiple applications and have more than one account. With the creation of a group or community, what users upload will be accepted by all members in the virtual group. A news is so rapidly spreading and becoming viral as a fast-paced post is forwarded to all members. They will forward the post to friends and members in other groups. Small stories can be as big as ripple in the water that eventually become a tsunami wave. According to the study, people are lazy to think and easily believe in what their friends sends without knowing their validity. With this, social media has turned into a way to spread rumors and even slander.
In addition, social media has a lot to do in the rural areas because of its role in connecting distant family members. Previously, the journey to remote isolation took a long time and it also involved a very high travel cost. However, with social media we can connect faster with someone even in the rural areas.
Mass media is the main contributor to moral collapse among youth. The specific television programs, emphasizing entertainment more than information. As an example, the western-oriented movie film nowadays are really familiar. There are pornographic parts in a movie or drama to attract people to watch. Thus, if a movie is aired, of course, the audience generally among youth. This would have a negative impact as they were more likely to be influenced to imitate the style or styles in a movie that they watch. Indirectly, it will trigger a crisis of identity for adolescents who are looking for a further identity in the symptoms of Hindunism.
As a conclusion, Media companies need to realize their important role in society and adopt a social responsibility policy, in line with international conventions and core labor standards. This policy should focus on building freedom of speech, training and improving the working conditions of media professionals, the same and to the highest level across the region. Furthermore, in my opinion the media organizations need to strengthen professional values, editorial independence and journalism. Editorial rules must be adopted to ensure separation of business and editorial activities. Besides that, the media ownership give many social effects. the effect are form by positive and negative effects.