DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ONLINE LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ICT UNIVERSITY STATEMENT OF AUTHENCITY This statement is to indicate that all of the work in this document has been done VERDZEDZEH FELIX NYUYSIRNI

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ONLINE LIBRARY
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ICT UNIVERSITY

STATEMENT OF AUTHENCITY
This statement is to indicate that all of the work in this document has been done VERDZEDZEH
FELIX NYUYSIRNI. The information listed below is accurate information that represents the
skills, goals and education of VERDZEDZEH FELIX NYUYSIRNI.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I will take this opportunity to thank God, almighty for blessing me with his grace and taking our
endeavor to a successful culmination. I extend my sincere and heartfelt thanks to my esteemed
supervisor, Mr. Daniel Moune for providing me with the right guidance and advice at the crucial
junctures and for showing me the right way. He has been my mentor, teacher and always ready to
make the best out of us guiding, showing us what it takes to be out in the field. I also take this
opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to my classmates for their cordial support, valuable
suggestions and guidance. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my friends and family for
the support and encouragement they have given us during the course of our work.

ABSTRACT
Libraries today are fast growing and management today has been a key problem. A library is an
organized collection of different sources of information and similar resources, which are made
available to the community either for reference or borrowing. The ancient method of managing
libraries manually has proven not to be dynamic and efficient. A computerized system with modern
techniques will help its users with quick access to information and services thus reducing physical
labor and complexity of the manual system. The aim of this project is to design and implement a
computerized online library management system for monitoring and controlling transactions in the
ICT University school library. The web application will provide a database for books and other
resources (like articles, journals, reports) available or not within this single library. The web
application was design and implement using HTML, CSS, Bootstrap, PHP and My SQL database.
The method used in this project was the Waterfall Model software development approach.
Evaluating this project extensively shows that the project achieved many of its predefined
objectives.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
STATEMENT OF AUTHENCITY ………………………………………………………………………………… 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
LIST OF FIGURES/DIAGRAMS ………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Presentation of Project the Domain …………………………………………………………………………. 9
Project Domain ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Keywords definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Project Location ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Scope of the project ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Objectives of the project ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Project Justification ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………….. 13
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Needs for library management system …………………………………………………………………… 16
LIMITATION OF THE CURRENT STUDY…………………………………………………………. 17
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, SYSTEM ………………………………… 18
INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………………………… 18
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Research Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Methods of Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Research questions and sub-questions ……………………………………………………………………. 19
Research questions ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Research sub-questionnaires …………………………………………………………………………………. 20
Results Obtained from Investigation ……………………………………………………………………… 20
Analysis of Existing System …………………………………………………………………………………… 21
Problems of the existing system ……………………………………………………………………………… 22
Proposal of a New System ……………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Library Features …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
Students Features …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
Benefits of the Proposed System …………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Design and Implementation Methodology ……………………………………………………………… 25
Software Requirements …………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
Web Design Techniques Used ………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Backend End ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
System Development Approach …………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Requirement analysis and System design ……………………………………………………………….. 30
Use Case Diagram …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Sequence Diagram ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
Class Diagram ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
Entity relationship Diagram (ER) For the Online library management System ………. 39
Architectural Activity Diagram for Library management system …………………………… 40
Implementation …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
Development Tools ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
Hardware/Software Requirements ………………………………………………………………………… 42
Testing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND ………………………………. 44
CONCLUSIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Review of project Scope and Objectives …………………………………………………………………. 44
Objectives of the project ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
Review of Project Results ………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
Limitations of the system ………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
Future system Enhancements ………………………………………………………………………………… 45
Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

LIST OF FIGURES/DIAGRAMS
Figure 3. 1V-Model ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Figure 3. 2 Requirement Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Figure 3. 3Use case Diagram ………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
Figure 3. 4 Sequence diagram for user registration ………………………………………………………. 35
Figure 3. 5Sequence diagram for user login ………………………………………………………………….. 35
Figure 3. 6Sequence Diagram for librarian Login …………………………………………………………. 36
Figure 3. 7Sequence Diagram for Issue Book ……………………………………………………………….. 36
Figure 3. 8Sequence diagram for return book ………………………………………………………………. 37
Figure 3. 9Class diagram for library management system …………………………………………….. 38
Figure 3. 10 ER for library management system …………………………………………………………… 39
Figure 3. 11Activity diagram for admin interface …………………………………………………………. 40
Figure 3. 12Activity diagram for student interface ……………………………………………………….. 41

Figure 4. 1 homepage …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
Figure 4. 2 student login page ………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Figure 4. 3 Student signup page……………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Figure 4. 4 Admin dashboard page ………………………………………………………………………………. 49
Figure 4. 5 Add Category page …………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
Figure 4. 6 manage categories page ………………………………………………………………………………. 50
Figure 4. 7 Add author page ………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
Figure 4. 8 manage authors page ………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
Figure 4. 9 Add book page …………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
Figure 4. 10 manage books page …………………………………………………………………………………… 52
Figure 4. 11 Issue book page ………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
Figure 4. 12 manage issued books ………………………………………………………………………………… 53
Figure 4. 13 manage registered students page……………………………………………………………….. 54
Figure 4. 14 Admin password change page …………………………………………………………………… 54
Figure 4. 15 student dashboard ……………………………………………………………………………………. 55
Figure 4. 16 List of books page …………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
Figure 4. 17 Manage issued books ………………………………………………………………………………… 56
Figure 4. 18 student edit account page ………………………………………………………………………….. 57

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3. 1Research sub-questionnaires …………………………………………………………………………. 20
Table 3. 2Use case table ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
Table 3. 3 System software Requirement for Offline Usage …………………………………………… 42

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Presentation of Project the Domain

Project Domain

For the past few years The ICT University has gone through transformation towards providing a
well-equipped ground for studies. One of the efforts towards that is providing a well modernized
library furnished with updated books to meet studies at the University. Many hands have been put
to the success of it to be in place and accessible by students to improve studies within ICT
University. However, with that in place one of the major the problem to students and school library
is providing a means by which students should access to information stored in the library and a
way for school to manage library resources and students through the web, rather the traditional
way. This web application will provide a database for books and other resources (like articles,
journals, reports) available or not within this single library. This project is aimed at providing a
means for managing the library using a web system and for students to have information on all the
resources at the school library.
Libraries can be divided into categories by several types, which are: Academic libraries or school
libraries (serve colleges and universities) Public libraries (serve cities and towns of all types)
Special libraries are in specialized environments, such as hospitals, corporations, museums, the
military, private business, and the government. Libraries are much more than a place to read books
and journals. Libraries also houses advanced electronic resources, including the Internet, digital
library collections, remote access to a wide range of technology and instruction
(http://guides.library.cornell.edu, 2017).
Most library positions focus on the following:
• user services (connecting people to the information they need)
• technical services (ordering, cataloging, and preparing materials)
• computer services (maintain library databases, software programming, web page design)
• administrative services (manage the library and services, negotiate contracts with vendors,
supervise library employees, prepare budgets)

Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses of specific issues
faced by libraries and library management professionals. Most problems faced in library
management are related to those faced in the management of an organization. A library
management system is an application that defines a library system which could be small or big in
size. This library system is used by librarian to categorically manage the library by the virtue of
using a computerized system where he/she can record various transactions like issue of books,
return of books, addition of new books, and students registered in the system. Books, authors,
categories and user maintenance modules are also included in this system which would keep
track of the users using the library and also a detailed description about the books a library
contains. With this computerized system there will be no loss of book record or member
record which generally happens when a non-computerized system is used. All these modules are
able to help librarian to manage the library with more convenience and in a more efficient way as
compared to library systems which are not computerized.

Keywords definition
Web Browser: A web browser, or simply “browser,” is an application used to access and view
websites. The primary function of a web browser is to render HTML, the code used to design or
“mark-up” webpages. Common web browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google
Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari. (techterms.com, 2014)
Internet: Internet is a worldwide system of computer networks interconnected through dedicated
routers and servers with protocols for information sharing.
Web Application: A Web application (Web app) is an application program that is stored on a
remote server and delivered over the Internet through a browser interface
(searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com, 2017).
Management system: A management system is the way in which an organization manages the
inter-related parts of its business in order to achieve its objectives. These objectives can relate to a
number of different topics, including product or service quality, operational efficiency,
environmental performance, health and safety in the workplace and many more (iso.org, 216).
Localhost: “Localhost” refers to the local computer that a program is running on. For example, if
you are running a Web browser on your computer, your computer is considered to be the
“localhost.” (Christensson, 2006). When using your local computer to run the web application,
your local pc act as a web server.
Web Server: A Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve
the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their
computers’ HTTP clients (whatis.techtarget.com, 2015).

Cataloguing: The description of each book on to cards as it comes into the library.
Framework: A framework is a toolset ready to be implemented on different scenarios.

Project Location
This project was conducted at the ICT University Cameroon main campus during the spring
semester period (February to July 2018).
Scope of the project
The final product of this project will be an online library management system that will be used for
major library operations at ICT University. There are two end users of the library management
system, the admin or librarian and students or users.
Objectives of the project
The aim of this project is to design and implement a system that can handle and manage the
activities involved in a library in an efficient and reliable way.
The objectives are:
I. To build a system than receive input and generate output automatically very easily within
a short time.
II. To build a monitoring system that is able to manage library operations efficiently.
III. To give an opportunity to librarians to reduce mistakes in the manual system.
IV. To manage various issues and keep track of their returns.
V. To Manage account module

Project Justification
The main motivation behind this project was to look for a way to solve the problem of library
management system at ICT University. To do this, an online management system will be a better
and superior solution with tech today. This project would be viable since many people are now
connected to the internet using communication devices like smartphones, tablets, Pcs and other
gadgets.

Problem Statement
Looking at things presently, transactions of books in the institutional libraries have been using
manual transactions in most cases which usually takes more time like borrowing of books or
returning them resulting to inefficient library management. In most cases errors made by humans

may lead to loss and damages of records due to poor management which makes computerized
system in the library better for management. Nevertheless, the difficulty in searching of books
which could be termed to be inadequacy in book management is a problem in the manual library
causing inefficiency and time consuming in the library. Due to problem of lack of prompt
information retrieval and time wastage using manual system, problems arise when records become
large and difficult with time. In addition, due to the much work in this project, the best computer
approach will be used to solve these problems. Analysis will be done for each manual procedure.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
This section presents a review of related literature to the study of library management systems.
This has been done in conformity with the projects main objective i.e. to design and implement
an Online library management system at ICT University.
A library is regarded as the brain of any institution, of course many institutes understand the
importance of the library to the growth of the institute and their esteem users which we
categorically call the students. Many libraries today at least have a computerized integrated library
management system for their management. An integrated library management system (ILMS) is
an automated package of library services that contains several functions (https://fr.slideshare.net,
n.d.). An integrated library system, also known as a library management system is an enterprise
resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and
users who have borrowed (Adamson, 2008). These functional usually include circulation,
acquisition and cataloguing etc. An integrated library management system is also called an
integrated library system (ILS). It usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with
that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for admin and other for staffs).
The library management system is a library management software for monitoring and controlling
the transactions in a library (Ashutosh Tripathi, Ashish Srivastava, 2012). Library management
system supports the general requirement of the library such as the acquisition, cataloguing,
circulation and other sections.
Before the coming of computer in modern age there are different methods of keeping records in
the library. Records are kept in the library on shelves and each shelf are labelled in an alphabetical
or numerical order, in which the categories of books available are arranged on different position
on the shelves and as well are recorded on the library manuscript and when any book is to be
referenced the manuscript is being referred to, to know the position of such required book by the
person that requested for the book. After the invention of computers, different researchers have
carried out various approach on automated library management systems in which this project is as
well all about.
The first ever library management system to be reviewed is the KOHA library management system.
Since the original implementation in 1999, KOHA functionality has been adopted by thousands of

libraries worldwide, each adding features and functions, deepening the capability of the system.
The release of version 3.0 in 2005 and the integration of the powerful Zebra indexing engine,
KOHA became a viable, scalable solution for libraries of all kinds. LibLime KOHA is built on this
foundation. With its advanced feature set, LibLime KOHA is the most functionally advanced open
source Integrated Library System in the market today. The major setback of this Library
Management System is that it is a web based and as a result it is not security conscious because
hackers could have the database hacked and access or modify the information of such user (koha
website, 2005).
Another Library Management System is the Capital’s library software with the following
benefits Increases support available for staff and users in any modern library service,
provides efficiency, innovative system that’s saves library time and improves the user
experience.
A library management system usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with
that database, and two graphical user interfaces ( one for users, one for staff). Most integrated
library systems, separate softeare functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them
integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include:
I. Acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials)
II. Cataloguing (classifying and indexing materials)
III. Circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back)
IV. Serials (tracking magazine and newspapers holdings)
V. The OPAC (public interface for users)

Prior to computerization, library tasks were performed manually and independently from one
another. Selectors ordered materials with ordering slips, cataloguers manually catalogued items
and indexed them with the card cataloguing system (in which all bibliographic data was kept on a
single index card), and users signed books out manually, indicating their name on cue cards which
were then kept at the circulation desk. Early mechanization came in 1936, when the University of
Texas began using a punch card system to manage library circulation. While the punch card system
allowed for more efficient tracking of loans, library services were far from being integrated, and
no other library task was affected by this change. The literature study in previous system could

give more reference in system development process. All the advantages in the previous system can
be implemented during the development of this proposed system.
This chapter entails the literature review related to library management system initiatives
worldwide, at national, regional and international levels. Secondary data will be searched from
print and online resources. Foreign literatures will be mainly used and some of these had been
highlighted to peruse and emulate.
The purpose of this literature review is to establish the potential topics and suggest ideas for
another research, reporting published materials on existing conceptual framework, theories,
techniques, processes, styles and instruments of other researchers related to the topic under
investigation. It will help analyze scope of study and in determining the various variables to be
included.
For this report, the main purpose of literature review will be to grasp comprehensive ideas on the
extent of library management systems initiatives and projects that had taken place Cameroon and
other places and the factors and conditions that had influenced and contributed to their success.
The approach to literature review is the browse method where print and electronic sources were
looked at, read and digested, looking for some relevancy, appropriateness and usefulness of the
topic at hand.
Keywords to be used during this search are library, virtual library, e-library, hybrid library, library
management initiatives, library management problems, library management research, library
services, resource sharing, distributed information resources, online databases, library automation,
library systems, mobile information access, information professionals, librarian, global access,
repositories and interoperability, management systems, library integrated system, database system
administration (DBSA).
As the research involves qualitative data as well, much research is made at the initial stage making
enquires to get as much primary data as possible from some librarians as possible when there is
opportunity to understand the subject better and helped in the formulation of the research questions.

The literature review will be about development of library management system which is organized
into the following sections namely why we need library management system, a review of problems
and challenges of library professionals in developing countries, library management system
initiatives worldwide. Library project system that offers many flexible and convenient features,

allowing librarians and library users to maximize time and efficiency. Library system gives all the
detailed information about students, staffs and books, it will track the books available in the library
and the books that have been issued to the library users (students). It shows popular books among
the students. It will provide book lost in the library. It keeps records of the supplier and the book
binders.
Needs for library management system
i. Improved services through greater access to accurate information
ii. Increased productivity and job satisfaction among staff members as it eliminates
duplication of effort
iii. More economical and safer means of storing and keeping of information
iv. Easier access to information like management reports and stock etc. as well as
accurate and faster results from statistical analyses.
v. Reduces errors and eliminating of long and repetitive manual processing
vi. Greater accountability and transparency in operations
vii. Improved efficiency and effectiveness in administration and management as it has
unprecedented access to real- time information.
viii. More reliable security for sensitive and confidential information.
ix. Appropriate knowledge –based action and intervention can now take place in a
timelier manner.

The outcome of this system developed has: ICT University library collections that are in single
database, it gives the full control over the library collections and operations, faculty members
search and research scholars can check the required books by OPAC modules, research scholars
and faculty members can check the status of their borrowed books, they can get the complete
details about the books for their future reading and research.
The significance of this study was to help and give a benefit to the concerned group below.
This study will be beneficial to the following:

Students and Staff: Through computerized library system, they can easily find the books that they
are looking for without going through the traditional way of searching a library material.

Convenience is more visible for it is not time-consuming, resulting to a number of accomplished
works.
Librarian: The computerized library system would improve the monitoring capacities of those
who maintain the library. It would be easier to determine whether a particular book is on-shelf or
not. In addition, they can easily identify when will the borrowed material be returned and if a
borrower has failed to return the book on its due date. Furthermore, the librarian would be much
guided when it comes to recognizing new inventory books, letting them arrange it promptly and
accordingly.

LIMITATION OF THE CURRENT STUDY
Very particularly, there are aspects that we can more or less call our limitation; they are discussed
in this area. It is important to get people’s feedback to really have an understanding of how we can
improve rapidly, and it is important to let them know what is been done has been, the sort of the
risks that are deemed unacceptable, and what we do to minimize the organization’s exposure to
them.
For now, the program software will not be able to function as a web-based application. Hence,
external users or user that is not within Open and Distance Learning will not be able to access
information until it is made available online.
Another consideration may be the limitation to accommodate new kinds of information. As
different kinds of information are required by the department, it is possible that the software will
become obsolete overtime.
Hence, in order to be able to store such information, there will be a need for modification, addition
modules and adjustments of the already existing modules. This can be costly in most cases
depending on the amount of work to be done. The school would have to decide on either buying
new software or modifying the old one at almost the same cost.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, SYSTEM
INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS
Introduction
To develop the best fit system for the ICTU library, this chapter will present the methodology
adopted during the study together with data collection methods, data analysis, system design and
implementation and final testing. Within these sections, a number of tactics will be employed so
that we can design a system that can maintain high usability and accessibility.

Research Methodology
Sha Avison 14 describes a methodology as “a collection of procedures, techniques, tools and
documentation aids which will help systems developers in their effort to produce a new
information system” (Gary Ingham , 2005). A quantitative and qualitative approach will be used
on this study presented as a case study design together with a descriptive design. The descriptive
designed expressed will be from the facts obtained from the current system. Since one of the main
aim of this study is to develop a more reliable user-friendly system compared to manual system in
the ICT University. For this to be accomplished, it will involve conduction of interviews with
librarian, staffs and students and evaluation of related articles.

Methods of Data Collection
Carry out research involves using different methods of data collection depending on the nature of
the research. However, in some instances, the interview method was used to gather data especially
from the school librarian including other methods like articles on the web, books and observation
of established school libraries. The target population of the study was students- undergraduates
and masters students of ICT University Cameroon. This approach of research is most appropriate
to gather information about students experience on use of the school library and identify user and
library requirements to further improve acceptability and use. The study employed a case study
research design using both questionnaire and interview. The interview was face to face and adopted
open ended questions which provided a set of predetermined questions. The choice of a case study
approach is because it provides a basis for closer integration of theory and practice. This is also

supportive of the colorful nature of the study. The in-depth interview administered by the
researcher in a semi-structured way was conducted with ICT University librarian and general
questionnaires to students and staffs. The respondents were adequately educated on the purpose of
the interview and on of issues of confidentiality.
A face to face interview was first conducted with the school librarian and with other school staff
in charge of library school and thereafter questionnaire was used to collect preliminary data. The
questionnaire items were designed to strictly measure student’s acceptance and use od web-based
library management system as well as outcome of use thereby ensuring content validity, predictive
validity, concurrent validity, construct via a test-retest reliability method of two weeks interval.
Taking a look at how data was obtained, categories of data used in this study is as follows;
– Primary Data source: A primary source provides direct or firsthand evidence about an
event, object, person, or work of art. Primary sources include historical and legal
documents, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments, statistical data, pieces of creative
writing, audio and video recordings, speeches, and art objects. Interviews, surveys,
fieldwork, and Internet communications via email, blogs, listservs, and newsgroups are
also primary sources (Ithaca College Library, 2017). For this study the primary data
collected was through oral interviews with librarians and staffs, and general questionnaires
for students. However, tools used for gathering primary data are, interview, observations,
surveys, questionnaires, experiments.
– Secondary Data Source: Secondary sources build upon primary resources by analyzing,
interpreting, synthesizing or discussing them (Royal Roads University , n.d.). Here data
was collected most especially from pass reports, internet research and published journals
on the web.

Research questions and sub-questions

Research questions
This study was guided by the following research question: How can the design and implement
a library management system in ICT University enable library management processes?

Table 3. 1Research sub-questionnaires
Questions addressed to the school Librarian
and staffs of ICT University.
Questions addressed users (students) of ICT
University
What do you understand by library management
system.
What do you understand by library management
system.
What is your position in the ICT University What is your position in the ICT University
How often do students visit the ICT University
school library?
How often do you visit the school library?
How many students do visit the school library
like per semester?
How many times do you visit the school library
like in a semester?
What type of materials do students visit the
library to obtain.
What type of materials do you visit the library to
obtain.
What IT tools and techniques are currently used
for management in the school library
How useful do you think using an online software
to check the library resources and students will
help?
What type of services would you expect the
online library management to offer?
What type of services would you expect the
online library management to offer?
What do you are the benefits this system will
bring to school is such a system is in place.
What other suggestions will you like to give
concerning the online library management
system.
What other suggestions will you like to give
concerning the online library management
system.

Results Obtained from Investigation
Feedback from the survey was positive as quite a number students staffs participated but if many
students would have engaged, the survey would be much accurate and to know where there is
much need. Participation in the survey was voluntary and students were informed that there were
no right or wrong answers, and their responses would be kept private as names were not used.

Thirty students and one of the library admin staff making 31 out of almost 200 students at ICT
University making (15%) responded to the questionnaires and interviews. The highest number of
responses came from the students of the institution and few interview questions from the library
admin staff. It was found that most the librarians at ICT University are mostly students who opted
to work at the school library. Some of the results gotten from questionnaires and interviews are
presented below;
– Interviews carried and out for both school librarian and Library admin staff and
questionnaires as well as data gathered through observations revealed that, in a school
academic year not up to 30 students out of almost 200 students in the university visit the
school library. The reason gathered from students was that most at times they don’t visit
the school library because it is not organized, lack of reading desk and limited books are
found in the library.
– According to findings, it also was found that, the students that come to use the library
mostly look for books, reports, journals electronic reference which some are not found in
school library computer.
– Findings from an interview with school librarian shows that, she most of at times use a
register to record library operations like organization of books, reports, recording of issue
and submitting od books and managing of student’s details. It was revealed that managing
the school using a book register was very difficult at times and could bring problems in
future as more students will be using the school library and the need for a software was
very important.
– From interview and questionnaires about library services and suggestions, many agreed
from options given that they want a system that display list of books, authors, list of
students, reports and fines at least.

Analysis of Existing System
System analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system and their
relationships within and outside of the system. Here the key question is-what problems exist in the
present system, what must be done to solve the problem. Analysis begins when a user or researcher
begins a study of the program using existing system.

The existing system of library management involves lots of paper work for all transactions as
everything is registered in a book manually. This takes more time for transactions like borrowing
a book or returning a book and also for searching of member and books. Another disadvantage is
that to prepare a list of books borrowed and the available takes more time which slows management.
After conduction the feasibility study a computerized system was best to be implement to solve
problems of the manual system of management.

Problems of the existing system
Having had an overview knowledge of the existing system after doing analysis and results obtained,
the following are challenges faced by the librarians using the manual system of managing the
library.
I. Loss of Data: A lot of paper work are need for the safe keeping of the details of books
borrowed, returns, reports by a registered user. The school librarian revealed that
sometimes they have problems of issues as some transactions were not recorded or missing.
II. Time Wasting: it was pointed that users had hard knowing the statues of the book
availability before visiting the school library. Many find it being time wasted as a result of
searching for a book that has been borrowed by another student.
III. Inadequate infrastructure and resources: Findings showed that, there is a challenge in
the limited resources and not up-to-date. The librarian revealed that, some of the outdated
materials hinders the research at ICT University.
IV. Lack of awareness: It was revealed that there is limited awareness among students about
using the available materials and books in the school library, sensitization of the
importance of library and benefits of participating in the usage of library is limited.
V. Processing speed: Study reveals that it was a time slow to process a transaction especially
when everything is written with the hand.
VI. Lack of clear policies and guidelines: It was also revealed that the library does not have
clear policies and guidelines to guide all staffs and students in the use of the school library.
Problems occurred when students borrow and keeps the book for more the period specified.

The reason for asking about the challenges faced in using the tools and techniques of managing
the school library was to identify those challenges that the library staffs are currently facing, that
may also hinder the design ang implementation of online library management system.

Proposal of a New System
Based on the difficulties sited above, it is important that the new system targets the weaknesses of
the old system in place. From observations made, the question was to design a system
that will make use of the available resources, be easily adopted and used by the citizens, be user
friendly while respecting the basics of User Interface and User Experience.
Looking at the fast-growing use of technology today it is seen that the old manual system of
management will become obsolete with time as everything is going digital. Many people will now
prefer to access information on the palm of their hands either using mobile technologies, Pc’s. This
need resulted in the development of a proposed system with the following solutions;
I. Provides better and efficient service to users(students).
II. Reduce the workload of librarian.
III. Faster retrieval of information about the desired book.
IV. Provide facility for proper monitoring reduce paper work and provide data security.
V. All details will be available on click
VI. Look and feel environment with search facility
VII. Provide room for generating reports and notification

This system will be a website or web application that can run on local web server inside a library
where it can be accessed through Wi-Fi or on internet either using a computer or mobile technology.
Below are some of the feature of the application.

Library Features
The online library management system will be divided into two modules;
Admin Features
• Admin Dashboard
• Admin can add/update/ delete category
• Admin can add/update/ delete author

• Admin can add/update/ delete books
• Admin can issue a new book to student and also update the details when student return
book
• Admin can search student by using their student ID
• Admin can also view student details
• Admin can change own password
• Admin can send notifications to students using SMS or email.
Students Features
• Student can register and after registration they will get studentID
• After login student can view own dashboard.
• Student can update own profile.
• Student can view books in the library with their status
• Student can view issued book and book return date-time.
• Student can also change own password.
• Student can also recover own password

Benefits of the Proposed System
Certain merits have been associated with the proposed system which enhances the design of the
system. Some of which are stated below:
I. Simple and Easy to Use: The library management system software is simple, user-friendly,
and can easily be integrated with the existing system. The system provides online and
offline storage, automated backups, and easy upgrades to simplify and enhance learning
process
II. Library Engagement: It eliminates frustration and tediousness by providing students
with 24/7 access to library resources from anywhere, anytime. It is beneficial because it
allows librarian to maintain all types of books, journals, reports and other information.
III. Efficient cloud data management: Automate, simplify and deploy library database
seamlessly to make it easy for the institution to benefit from secure cloud services, improve
efficiency with the automation of various library tasks including acquisition, cataloging,
serials management, circulation and reference.

IV. Highly Secure, Scalable and Reliable: This system will bring benefit from scalable
infrastructure, role-based secure access, highly performance and reliable to ensure
seamless access to library database.
V. Mobile Access: The library management system will bring much benefits as it provides
mobile access to search the library catalog, schedules, books and resources from anywhere
at any given time via smartphones and tablets.
VI. Error-Free: Since the system is user-friendly, powerful and developed for easy entry of
data, makes library operations free from errors
VII. Fully Customizable: The library system is fully customizable and adaptable to the needs
of the institution to provide fast reliable data.
VIII. Cost-effective: Embracing sophisticated technologies is cost-effective and a viable choice
for education institutions. Using online library management system, it eliminates paper-
based processes and maintenance overheads, improves productivity, reduces operation
costs and saves time.
Design and Implementation Methodology

The design methodology used in the proposed system is parallel as a result of the fact that parallel
methods support the used of proposed system side with the existing system in order to test for the
system efficiency. Top down approach in used as well in the design because it allows the analysis
of the system to be carried out one after the other.
In this stage, the first goal will be decided by task analysis. Next, the prototype of the system will
be analyzed. The test will be made on its usability and design with some design theories. Thus, the
prototype will be correspondingly looked at. Finally, the system will be finalized with the
amendment on some problems of the user interface.

Software Requirements
i. Operating system- Windows 10 is used as the operating system as it is stable and
supports more features and is more user friendly
ii. Database MYSQL-MYSQL is used as database as it easy to maintain and retrieve
records by simple queries which are in English language which are easy to understand
and easy to write.

Development tools and Programming language- HTML is used to write the whole code and
develop webpages with CSS and Bootstrap for styling work and hypertext, JavaScript for adding
functionality to the web app, pre-processor (PHP) for sever side scripting.
Web Design Techniques Used
The whole Project is divided in two parts the front end and the back end. FRONT END: The front
end is designed using of HTML, CSS, Java script, Bootstrap.
i. HTML- HTML or Hyper Text Mark-up Language is the main mark-up language for creating
web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web26 browser.HTML is written in
the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like ), within
the web page content. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose
them into visible or audible web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by
denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other
items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of
HTML web pages.
ii. CSS- Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the look and
formatting of a document written in a mark-up language. While most often used to style web pages
and interfaces written in HTML and XHTML, the language can be applied to any kind of XML
document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL. CSS is a cornerstone specification of the web
and almost all web pages use CSS style sheets to describe their presentation.CSS is designed
primarily to enable the separation of document content from document presentation, including
elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts.
This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the
specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce
complexity and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for table less web
design).CSS can also allow the same mark-up page to be presented in different styles for different
rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser
or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. It can also be used to allow the web page
to display differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being viewed.27
iii. JAVA SCRIPT- JavaScript (JS) is a dynamic computer programming language. It is most
commonly used as part of web browsers, whose implementations allow client-side scripts to
interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document

content that is displayed. It is also being used in server-side programming, game development and
the creation of desktop and mobile applications. JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting language
with dynamic
typing and has first- class functions. Its syntax was influenced by C. JavaScript copies many names
and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very
different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the self and
Scheme programming languages. It is a multiparadigm language, supporting object-oriented,
imperative, and functional programming styles.
vi. Bootstrap is an open-source JavaScript framework developed by the team at Twitter. It is a
combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code designed to help build user interface components.
Bootstrap was also programmed to support both HTML5 and CSS3.
Backend End
The back end comprises three parts: the server, your database, any APIs, and a back-end web
application, software written via server-side languages. The server is a powerful computer that
runs the back-end software, the database houses your site’s data, and the software communicates
between the two. For example, if a user is updating a profile on a networking site, the server-side
scripts will gather the information the user enters, the application will process it on the server, then
interact with the database to update that information there. PHP- PHP is a server-side scripting
language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
PHP is now installed on more than 244 million websites and 2.1 million web servers. On this
project Xamp server was used as local webserver for the development with MySQL for structuring
the database. MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central
component of the widely used
System Development Approach
System development life cycle is referred to a methodology for developing systems. It produces a
consistent framework of tasks and deliverables needed to develop systems. The SDLC
methodology may be condensed to include automated or manual, whether it is a new system, or
an enhancement to existing system. The SDLC methodology tracks a project from an idea
developed by the user through feasibility study, system analysis and design, programming, pilot
testing, implementation and maintenance.
The development methods that intend to use for the library system is the V-Model which may be
considered as an extension of the waterfall model, it offers a mean of making the development

process more visible. A system prototype can be developed to give end-user a concrete impression
on the system capabilities.
System life cycle is an organizational process of developing and maintaining systems, it helps in
establishing a system project plans because it gives overall list of process and sub processes
required developing a system. System development life cycle means combination of various
activities. In other words, various activities put together are referred to as system development life
cycle. In the system analysis and design terminology system development life cycle is known to
be software development life cycle, the following are the different phases of software development
life cycle. Software concept, Requirement analysis, Architectural design, Coding and debugging,
System testing Implementation, Maintenance is illustrated below.

Figure 3. 1V-Model

The V model represents a software development process (also applicable to hardware development)
which may be considered an extension of the waterfall model. Instead of moving down in a linear
way, the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase, to form the typical V shape. The
V-Model demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its
associated phase of testing. The horizontal and vertical axes represent time or project completeness
(left-to-right) and level of abstraction (coarsest grain abstraction uppermost), respectively.

Requirement analysis and System design
The requirements of the system are collected by analyzing the needs of the user(s). This phase is
concerned with establishing what the ideal system has to perform. However, it does not determine
how the software will be designed or built. Usually, the users are interviewed and a document
called the user requirements document is generated.

Figure 3. 2 Requirement Analysis

The user requirements document will typically describe the system’s functional, interface,
performance, data, security, etc. requirements as expected by the user. It is used by business
analysts to communicate their understanding of the system to the users. The users carefully review
this document as this document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system
design phase. The user acceptance tests are designed in this phase. There are different methods for
gathering requirements of both soft and hard methodologies including; interviews, questionnaires,
document analysis, observation, throw-away prototypes, use cases and static and dynamic views
with users. The requirement documentation will be referred throughout the rest of the system
development process to ensure the developing project along with the need and requirements.

Systems design is the phase where system engineers analyze and understand the business of the
proposed system by studying the user requirements document. They figure out possibilities and
techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. If any of the requirements are not
feasible, the user is informed of the issue. A resolution is found and the user requirement document
is edited accordingly. The software specification document which serves as a blueprint for the
development phase is generated. This document contains the general system organization, menu
structures, data structures etc. It may also hold example business scenarios, sample windows,
reports for the better understanding. Other technical documentation like entity diagrams, data
dictionary will also be produced in this phase. The documents for system testing are prepared.

Use Case Diagram
A use case is a type of methodology that is used to describe a set of actions (use cases) that some
system or systems (subject) should or can perform in collaboration with one or more external users
of the system (actors) (uml-diagrams.org, 2007). Each use provides observable and valuable result
to the actors or users of the system. A standard use case diagram is defined using a unified
modeling language containing relationships between actors with their goals.
The diagram below shows the use case diagram of the proposed online library management system
which contains the following use cases;

Table 3. 2Use case table
ACTOR GOAL
Student Book reservation
Search books online
Change password
Change name and number

Librarian Approve user

Delete user
Add new book information
Delete old book records
Send email reminders
Issue Book
Issue fine
Add author
Add Departments
Search users
Update book status and shelves
Print reports
Database Administrator Online registration
Issue admin username and password
View all records
Search students and Department records
Update user’s information online
Maintenance
Update user’s information Online
Delete book
Update book status online
Issued books online

Figure 3. 3Use case Diagram

Sequence Diagram
A sequence diagram describes the interaction among classes in terms of an exchange of message
over time. Sequence diagram display the behavior of objects in a use case by describing messages
they pass to objects. They describe the sequence of actions that occurs in any system. Sequence
diagrams are alternative ways to understand the overall flow of the control of a program instead of
looking at the code and trying to find out the overall sequence of behavior.
The following tools located on the sequence diagram toolbox which enable to model sequence
diagrams:
– Object: An object has state, behavior, and identity. The structure and behavior of similar objects
are defined in their common class. Each object in a diagram indicates some instance of a class. An
object that is not named is referred to as a class instance.
– Message Icons: A message icon represents the communication between objects indicating that
an action will follow. The message icon is a horizontal, solid arrow connecting two lifelines
together.
– Focus of Control: Focus of Control (FOC) is an advanced notational technique that enhances
sequence diagrams. It shows the period of time during which an object is performing an action,
either directly or through an underlying procedure.
– Message to Self: A Message to Self is a tool that sends a message from one object back to the
same object. It does not involve other objects because the message returns to the same object. The
sender of a message is the same as the receiver.
– Note: A note captures the assumptions and decisions applied during analysis and design. Notes
may contain any information, including plain text, fragments of code, or references to other
documents.
– Note Anchor: A note anchor connects a note to the element that it affects.
Librarian Issues a book to a user or student: Before users come in they must login in their library
accounts where they are authenticated before access, there in their accounts they have all they
information about the books and they status. Whenever a user wants to borrow, a librarian checks
the availability of the book and other information about the books. The librarian then checks
validity of member by verifying the library Students ID. If the member is valid then the number
of books issues to the user is less than maximum allowed, books issued to the user and transaction
is created. Librarian then update the number of books issued to the user or member and status of
the book. Returning a book, the librarian checks the issued books then search a student by his or
library ID then update the issue to return while checking there is a fine.

Figure 3. 4 Sequence diagram for user registration

Figure 3. 5Sequence diagram for user login

Figure 3. 6Sequence Diagram for librarian Login

Figure 3. 7Sequence Diagram for Issue Book

Figure 3. 8Sequence diagram for return book
Class Diagram
These diagrams depict the behavioral pattern of the system. They show how each and every class
inter-related to the other one, which relationships exists among each of the classes. Classes are
identified by instances of that of that class called attributes which contains a significant piece of
data values that describe each instance of that class. For example, in the context of this study admin,
members, books are others are classes which are represented with boxes with their attributes and
data types. Classes specify what data and functions will be included in objects of that classes.
The following are most important classes for the online library management system:
• Library: it is the place where books, newspapers, magazine, reports, thesis etc. are stored
for users. It provides the card to its regular user with or without cost.
• Admin: Those who control the library management system
• Books: The library must contain books or resources of the library.
• Students: They are the main primary users of the library.
• Category or department: They describe a group of items used for organizing inventory
resources or books
• Authors: they are the creators of a written book
• Issued Books: It provides information about books borrowed by students.
• Reports: they are written account of something that can happened.

Figure 3. 9Class diagram for library management system

Entity relationship Diagram (ER) For the Online library management System

The entity relationship model is a popular high-level conceptual data model. It displays detailed,
logical representation of data or an organization for a business area. It is clear that the physical
objects from the previous section – the member, books, library – correspond to entities in the
Entity-Relationship model, and the operations to be done on those entities – holds, checkouts, and
so on – correspond to relationships. However, a good design will minimize redundancy and
attempt to store all the required information in as small a space as possible. The entity relationship
diagram model is very useful for mapping the meanings and interactions of real world enterprise
on a conceptual schema. The E.R diagram drawn below shows the entities in the library
management system, the relationships among the entities and attributes of both entities and their
relationships.

Figure 3. 10 ER for library management system

Architectural Activity Diagram for Library management system

The activity diagram is used to describe flow of activity through a series of actions. Activity
diagrams of an online library management system may defer according to users such as
administrator, members etc.

Figure 3. 11Activity diagram for admin interface

Figure 3. 12Activity diagram for student interface

Implementation
This section presents all the tools and technics put in place for the development of the system.
Development Tools
This library application is a web application that will be hosted on the internet developed using
PHP along with HTML, CSS, JavaScript and Bootstrap. Here, this project was built following the
MVC framework of architecture but most of the work was done with PHP language because it
handles the server-side scripting well. PHP was chosen for this project because of the following
reasons.
• Easy to start with: For beginners it is easy to with PHP just by mastering few PHP tags
from the basics. Dynamic typing and associative arrays makes it also easier to start with
PHP
• Easy to use: Compared to other languages like java, you don’t need to compiled PHP scripts,
so one can just write and upload to a server and see the results.
• Integrated database support: PHP has been built to support most of the popular databases
like MySQL. It is easy to start using MySQL database with PHP without additional drivers
which needs to be installed. MySQL comes with an easy to use web admin tool which ease
web development with PHP.

Hardware/Software Requirements
This web application is compatible to run online and on local servers. To run the web in local
network, a local web server has to be setup where the app can be hosted e.g. a raspberry Pi for
users to access it offline.
Table 3. 3 System software Requirement for Offline Usage
Hardware and Software Specifications Requirement
Processor 3.2GHz
Minimum RAM 1GB
Hard Disk 350MB
Operating System Windows, Linux, Mac
Database Storage system MySQL
Additional software Required Wamp, Xamp, Mamp, browser

Testing
Software testing is the process of evaluating a software in order to verify that the application
functions according to the end user’s requirement. Testing is one of the important steps in the
software development phase as it is done to identify errors so as to correct them early. The library
management system has been developed to ensure that it meets the needs as required by the
students of the University. Thorough testing has been done on the system so as to ensure the
correctness of its design. System simulations operations showing the interaction between the user
on a local machine and the system are presented in the screenshots at the appendix A. To get full
testing for its intended users, the system has to be hosted online for them to test and give full results.
After the system has been run for daily operation, continued maintenance and administration
should will be carried out to handle any systems errors and security issues. This will entail the
pre-test, validity test, pilot and reliability test and data survey.

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND

CONCLUSIONS
In this final chapter, the final evaluation and conclusion will be done based on project scopes and
objectives, the results of the implemented system. This chapter will further discuss the limitations
of the current project, proposal of further enhancements and studies and recommendations of the
study and recommendations of areas for future research.

Review of project Scope and Objectives
Scope of the project
The final product of this project will be an online library management system that will be used for
major library operations at ICT University. There are two end users of the library management
system, the admin or librarian and students or users.
Objectives of the project
The aim of this project is to design and implement a system that can handle and manage the
activities involved in a library in an efficient and reliable way.
The objectives are:
I. To build a system than receive input and generate output automatically very easily within
a short time.
II. To build a monitoring system that is able to manage library operations efficiently.
III. To give an opportunity to librarians to reduce mistakes in the manual system.
IV. To manage various issues and keep track of their returns.
V. To Manage account module

Review of Project Results
After completing the development of the proposed system, Online library management system, the
researcher conducted an evaluation of the system in order to measure the performance of the
proposed system in accordance efficiency, reliability, accuracy and speed.
The researcher made use of actual interview using a set of open ended questions and listings of
standard system evaluation criteria.
At least two admins from school were interviewed to evaluate the system along the school library
staff and a student, who are the main users of the system. Based on individual test, the system met
the requirements and objectives of the library, easy to manage and user friendly.

While evaluating the proposed system, the research made some video recordings in order to obtain
concrete proof of the evaluation process.
The questionnaires provided during the study served as the instrument in order to identify the
effectiveness of the proposed system in terms of the given criteria and based from the responses
from the questionnaires, the following conclusions were drawn.
Limitations of the system
As earlier discussed, it is important to get peoples feedback to really have an understanding of how
we can improve rapidly. Since one of this projects purpose is to reduce manual system of paper
work, library personal will still want to go back to paper when there is inaccessible to the
application. Some other limitations are listed below;
• First this library does not support e-books since its only used for managing the physical
library.
• The system does not support messaging among members thus emails will be used for
communication when need be.
• Acquiring knowledge reserved books is not supported, users will have to consult the
librarian directly to find out if the book is available but reserved by some other library user.

Future system Enhancements
It is not possible to develop a system that has all the requirements of a user. User requirements
keep changing as the system is being used. Developing this project is an ongoing process
accompanied by future release. I encourage the university students and other researchers to carry
out further research in the development of library management systems that can overcome
limitation of the present online library management system. Upgrade approach should be
recognized, acknowledged, and accepted since the library resides in a University of technology.
The release of future updates may contain the following features;
• The system will be able to support e-books, audio books for its users to facilitate learning
at the university.
• A more interaction messaging surface will permit users to exchange messages and to make
general announcement to its users.
• A notification system will be added to notify users about current changes in the system.

Recommendations
A number of challenges have been identified in using the available tools and techniques for library
management at ICT university. Similar challenges were pointed out by participants as challenges
that they have using the library. The proposed recommendations for the library to so successfully
design and implement an online library management system are based on findings in the study and
these recommendations are presented in the form of strategies to successfully design and
implement a library management system to improve studies and flow of knowledge in the

University. Presented below is an outline of the various recommendations that ICT University can
follow to successfully adopt the new library management system.
• Library management support and commitment: Library management should show
support and commitment for the new library management system by making trainings
intended to impart technology skills into the library staff, encouraging staff to embrace and
use the system. The success and sustainability of the library management will depend on
continuous financial support from the University for the system to up 27/4 by providing
support for maintenance.
• Technological infrastructure: The library needs to critically evaluate its existing
infrastructure and strengthen the existing technological by procuring up-to-date equipment,
books ensuring that there is good internet connectivity, security measures for people’s
contribution towards knowledge, suitable tools and technical support for the entire library.
• Policies and guidelines: It is important for the library to have library policy and other
policies such as the ICT, copyright and access policies. The policies can guide the
implementation of the library management and prompt to support the process. It can also
be recommended that library policies that are in draft form should be approved to support
the library management initiative.
• It is recommended that library services should establish a new electronic course materials
services that service that delivers documents to students.
• Secure funding for and conduct user assessment of digitized collection and make the
information from these available to the school library.

Conclusion
Technology has had and will perhaps continue to have a dramatic impact on library operations and
services. It is the main force for changing the core work culture of library situation. The trends in
technology will certainly find their way into large academic library set up. Because, the libraries
must satisfy the expectations of their end users to sustain their goal, objective and existence in
present techno-oriented world. This system met most of the objectives by enabling the staff keep
track o its users and resources they manage. From proper analysis and assessment of the designed
system it can be safely concluded that the system is efficient, usable and reliable library
management system. The system is working properly and adequately meets the minimum
expectations that were initially expected. The new system is expected to give benefits to the ICT
University students and staffs in terms of efficiency in usage, there continuing to make ICT
University “Where research Matters”.

Appendix
The ICTU online library management system is a client server web-based system which contains
two structured layers i.e. the admin (the librarian) and the user (students). The online library
management system front interface provides the login for admin, student signup and sign in. Below
are screenshots from the working system followed by description of how the application works.

Figure 4. 1 homepage
When a user first visits the link to the web application, they are presented with a
front interface which has admin login, student signup and student login. This
interface enables the admin to login to its interface and student to sign for the first
time or login to their interface. The login pages serve as an access point for existing
users of the system. It allows librarian with username and password to access the
system and carry out operations that are relevant. Librarian details are issued by the
administrator controlling the system to avoid unauthorized members into their
accounts. It also allows existing library users to access their interface using their
email and passwords. Also, it allows new users to register for an account in order to
gain access in the system. After registering they are given a unique library
student_ID which is used for library operations. Before signing into the system, they
have to prove that they are not a robot using a little auto changing verification code.
Validation is done to very that student must have filled all the necessary information
before gaining access in the system.

Figure 4. 2 student login page

Figure 4. 3 Student signup page
Librarian Dashboard

The librarian holds the primary role of leadership in the library system. In the library management
system, the library administrator is responsible for administering user roles to different users of
the system. Below is a list of pages that can be viewed by the librarian.
• Category management or Department management (add, edit and delete)
• Author management (Add, edit and delete)
• Book management (add, edit, delete)
• User management (block, unblock)
• Transaction log or Issue management (add, edit)

Figure 4. 4 Admin dashboard page

Figure 4. 5 Add Category page
The category page or department page displays department name and status, if the department is
active books can be added to it but if its blocked books cannot be added to it.

Figure 4. 6 manage categories page

The author page allows the librarian to add and view authors in the library system.

Figure 4. 7 Add author page

Figure 4. 8 manage authors page

The book management page enables the library librarian to add register new books in the system
like book name, Category, author, ISBN number, price, status, and shelve.

Figure 4. 9 Add book page

Figure 4. 10 manage books page

The transaction or issued books page allows transactions to be recorded in the system, these
transactions enable the librarian to issue books, fine and return book issued out to a student

Figure 4. 11 Issue book page

Figure 4. 12 manage issued books

The user management page enables the library administrator or librarian to control users
registered in the system. If users break rules of the library their accounts can be banned
from the system by blocking them.

Figure 4. 13 manage registered students page

Figure 4. 14 Admin password change page

Student Dashboard
When a student or user logs into the account they are presented with a slightly different interface
with fewer features where they can have the follow features’
• List of books with their information’s
• Issued books
• Profile management

Figure 4. 15 student dashboard

List of books page displays information about books in the library such a user can have
books with name, departments, author, ISBN number and status of the book if its borrowed
or available.

Figure 4. 16 List of books page

Figure 4. 17 Manage issued books
The issued books show information about books issued to the current user logged
into the system. If the user does not have books issued to him or her nothing will
be displaced in the page

Figure 4. 18 student edit account page
The profile page allows users to modify certain personal information in their accounts like name
and number. Some of the details are blocked from the user from editing as a security measure to
control users of the system.
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