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Bolivia starting Spanish colonial period HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Bolivia&action=edit&section=2” o “Edit section: Spanish colonial period” edit
Conquest by Spain HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Bolivia&action=edit&section=3” o “Edit section: Conquest by Spain” edit
Further information: European colonization of the Americas and Spanish colonization of the AmericasInca expansion (1438–1533 CE)
Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and Hernando de Luque led the Spanish discovery and conquest of the Inca empire. They first sailed south in 1524 along the Pacific coast from Panama to confirm the existence of a legendary land of gold called “Biru” (later altered to Peru). Because the rapidly expanding Inca Empire was internally weak, the conquest was remarkably easy. After the Inca Emperor  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huayna_Capac” o “Huayna Capac” Huayna Capacdied in 1527, his sons Huascar and Atahualpa fought over the succession. Although Atahualpa defeated his brother, he had not yet consolidated his power when the conquistadors arrived. Atahualpa did not attempt to defeat Pizarro when he arrived on the coast in 1532 because the Incan ruler was convinced that those who commanded the mountains also controlled the coast. Atahualpa’s refusal to accept the permanent Spanish presence and to convert to Christianity led to the bloody Battle of Cajamarca on November 16, 1532. Pizarro killed Atahualpa’s 12-man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called ransom room. One year later, the Inca capital of Cuzco fell and was refounded as a new Spanish settlement.

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Francisco Pizarro
Despite Pizarro’s quick victory, Inca rebellions soon began and continued periodically throughout the colonial period. In 1537  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manco_Inca” o “Manco Inca” Manco Inca, whom the Spanish had established as a puppet emperor, rebelled against the new rulers and restored a “neo-Inca” state. This state continued to challenge Spanish authority even after the Spanish suppressed the revolt and beheaded  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%BApac_Amaru” o “Túpac Amaru” Túpac Amaru in the public square of Cuzco in 1572. Later revolts in the Bolivian highlands were usually organized by the elders of the community and remained local in nature, except for the great rebellion of  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%BApac_Amaru_II” o “Túpac Amaru II” Túpac Amaru II.

During the first two decades of Spanish rule, the settlement of the Bolivian highlands — now known as Upper Peru (Alto Peru) or Real Audiencia of Charcas — was delayed by a civil war between the forces of Pizarro and Diego de Almagro. The two conquistadors had divided the Incan territory, with the north under the control of Pizarro and the south under that of Almagro. Fighting broke out in 1537 when Almagro seized Cuzco after suppressing the Manco Inca rebellion. Pizarro defeated and executed Almagro in 1538, but was himself assassinated three years later by former supporters of Almagro. Pizarro’s brotChristianity HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Bolivia&action=edit&section=5” o “Edit section: Christianity” edit
Along with the conquistadors came the Catholic clergy which began the conversion of native peoples to Christianity. In 1552 the first bishopric in Upper Peru was established in La Plata; in 1605 La Paz and Santa Cruz also became bishoprics. In 1623, the Jesuits established the Royal and Pontifical Higher University of San Francisco Xavier of Chuquisaca, Upper Peru’s first university.

The official Inca religion disappeared rapidly and Indians continued their local worship under the protection of local Indian rulers. As Christianity’s influence grew, a new folk Catholicism developed, incorporating symbols of the indigenous religion. Whereas early Indian rebellions were anti-Christian, the revolts at the end of the 16th century were based in messianic Christian symbolism that was Roman Catholic and anti-Spanish. The church was tolerant of local Indian religions. In 1582 the bishop of La Plata permitted building of a sanctuary for the dark  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgen_de_Copacabana” o “Virgen de Copacabana” Virgen de Copacabana on the shores of Lake Titicaca.

Struggle for independence HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Bolivia&action=edit&section=7” o “Edit section: Struggle for independence” edit
Main article: Bolivian War of IndependenceIn the late 18th century, a growing discontent with Spanish rule developed among the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criollo_people” o “Criollo people” criollos who began to assume active roles in the economy, especially in mining and agricultural production, and thus resented the trade barriers established by the mercantalist policies of the Spanish crown. In addition, criollos were incensed that Spain reserved all higher administrative positions for peninsulares (Spanish-born persons).

The Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason, questioning of authority and tradition, and individualistic tendencies, also contributed to criollo discontent. The Inquisition had not kept the writings of  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niccol%C3%B2_Machiavelli” o “Niccolò Machiavelli” Niccolò Machiavelli, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, and others out of Spanish America; their ideas were often discussed by criollos, especially those educated at the university in Chuquisaca. Although Upper Peru was fundamentally loyal to Spain, the ideas of the Enlightenment and independence from Spain continued to be discussed by scattered groups of radicals.7As Spanish royal authority weakened during the Napoleonic Wars, sentiment against colonial rule grew. Bolivian historiography dates the proclamation of independence to 1809, but 16 years of struggle followed before the establishment of a republic named for  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sim%C3%B3n_Bol%C3%ADvar” o “Simón Bolívar” Simón Bolívar.

The invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1807-08 by Napoleon’s forces proved critical to the independence struggle in South America. The overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty and the placement of Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne tested the loyalty of the local elites in Upper Peru, who were suddenly confronted with several conflicting authorities. Most remained loyal to the Spanish Bourbons. Taking a wait-and-see attitude, they supported the Supreme Central Junta in Spain, a government which claimed to rule in the name of the abdicated Ferdinand VII. Some liberals eagerly welcomed the possible reforms to colonial rule promised by Joseph Bonaparte. A few officials supported the claims to a type of regency of the Spanish realms by Ferdinand’s sister, Carlota, who at the moment governed from Brazil with her husband, Prince Regent John of Portugal.8 Finally, a small number of radical  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criollo_people” o “Criollo people” Criollos wanted independence for Upper Peru.9This conflict of authority resulted in a local power struggle in Upper Peru between 1808 and 1810, which constituted the first phase of the efforts to achieve independence. In 1808, the president of the Audiencia, Ramón García León de Pizarro, leaned towards affiliation with Carlotta. But the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oidor” o “Oidor” oidores of the Audiencia favored the Supreme Central Junta. On 25 May 1809, the oidores deposed President García León and established a junta to govern in the name of Ferdinand VII. On 16 July 1809, Pedro Domingo Murillo led another revolt by Criollos and  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mestizo” o “Mestizo” Mestizos in La Paz and proclaimed an independent junta of Upper Peru, which would govern in the name of Ferdinand VII. By November 1809, Cochabamba, Oruro, and Potosí had joined the La Paz junta. Both revolts were put down by forces sent to La Paz by the viceroys of Peru and the Río de La Plata.10During the following seven years, Upper Peru became the battleground for forces of the United Provinces of the River Plate and royalist troops from Peru. Although the royalists repulsed three Argentine invasions, guerrillas controlled parts of the countryside, where they formed six major republiquetas, or zones of insurrection. In these zones, local patriotism would eventually develop into a full fight for independence. By 1817, Upper Peru was relatively quiet and under the control of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Bolivian National Revolutionedit
Standing alongside the Mexican Revolution, the Bolivian National Revolution is one of the most significant sociopolitical events to occur in Latin America during the 20th century.dubious – discuss The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR) emerged from the ashes of the Chaco War in 1941 as a middle-class political coalition eschewing Marxism for nationalism. The MNR participated in the military-civilian regime of Gualberto Villarroel (1943–46), but was deposed of in 1946 by the mining oligarchy and the Partido Izquierda Revolucionario (PIR). The party initiated a brief but bloody civil war in October 1949, but was defeated. The MNR emerged victorious in the 1951 elections, but the results were called fraudulent by the opposition, and its right to the presidency was denied.

On 9 April 1952, the MNR led a successful revolt and set into motion the Bolivian National Revolution. Under President  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%ADctor_Paz_Estenssoro” o “Víctor Paz Estenssoro” Víctor Paz Estenssoro and later,  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hernan_Siles&action=edit&redlink=1” o “Hernan Siles (page does not exist)” Hernan Siles, the MNR introduced universal adult suffrage, nationalized the country’s largest tin mines, carried out a sweeping land reform, and promoted rural education.

What is especially significant about the Revolution is that, for the first time in Republican history, the State attempted to incorporate into national life the Aymara and Quechua peasants that together constituted no less than 65 percent of the total population. Although the policies pursued by the MNR were largely corporatist and assimilationist, it marked a significant turning point in Bolivia’s contested history of indigenous-state relations. Following the 1952 revolution, the Bolivian state sought to strengthen its role in rural areas, implementing an extensive public health campaign that specifically included indigenous Bolivians.11Transition to democracy HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Bolivia&action=edit&section=13” o “Edit section: Transition to democracy” edit
After a military rebellion forced out García Meza in 1981, three other military governments within 14 months struggled with Bolivia’s growing problems. Unrest forced the military to convoke the Congress elected in 1980 and allowed it to choose a new chief executive.

economic course for a long time, his use of the imagery, ‘a yam between two boulders’ in Nepal’s geopolitical context, formed the principal guideline of the country’s foreign policy for future centuries. But in the modern days, this saying is to be modified as a ‘link between two giant countries’ and Nepal can be able to get benefit from both countries.

Nepal starting
Revolution of 1951edit
Main article: Democracy movement in NepalThe revolution of 1951 started when dissatisfaction against the family rule of the Ranas had started emerging from among the few educated people, who had studied in various South Asian schools and colleges, and also from within the Ranas, many of whom were marginalized within the ruling Rana hierarchy. Many of these Nepalese in exile had actively taken part in the Indian Independence struggle and wanted to liberate Nepal as well from the autocratic Rana occupation. The political parties such as The Prajaparishad and Nepali Congress were already formed in exile by leaders such as B. P. Koirala, Ganesh Man Singh, Subarna Sumsher Rana, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai,  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girija_Prasad_Koirala” o “Girija Prasad Koirala” Girija Prasad Koirala, and many other patriotic-minded Nepalis who urged the military and popular political movement in Nepal to overthrow the autocratic Rana Regime. Thus Nepali congress formed a military wing Nepali Congress’s Liberation Army Among the prominent martyrs to die for the cause, executed at the hands of the Ranas, were Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Shukraraj Shastri, Gangalal Shrestha, and Dasharath Chand who were the members of Praja Parisad. This turmoil culminated in King Tribhuvan, a direct descendant of Prithvi Narayan Shah, fleeing from his “palace prison” in 1950, to India, touching off an armed revolt against the Rana administration. This eventually ended in the return of the Shah family to power and the appointment of a non-Rana as prime minister according to a tri-partite agreement signed called ‘Delhi Compromise’. A period of quasi-constitutional rule followed, during which the monarch, assisted by the leaders of fledgling political parties, governed the country. During the 1950s, efforts were made to frame a constitution for Nepal that would establish a representative form of government, based on a British model.there was a 10-member cabinent under Prime Minister Mohan Shumsher having 5 members of Rana and 5 of Nepali congress party. This government drafted a constitution called ‘Interim Government Act’ which was the first constitution of Nepal. But this Government doomed as Ranas and Congressmen were never on good terms. So, on 1 Mangsir 2008 BS, the king formed a new government of 14 ministers. which was also dissolved. later on Sharawan 2009 BS King formed 5 members councillors government which was also failed.

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Multiparty parliament HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nepal&action=edit&section=22” o “Edit section: Multiparty parliament” edit
People in rural areas had expected that their interests would be better represented after the adoption of parliamentary democracy in 1990. The Nepali Congress with the support of “Alliance of leftist parties” decided to launch a decisive agitational movement, Jana Andolan, which forced the monarchy to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament. In May 1991, Nepal held its first parliamentary elections in nearly 50 years. The Nepali Congress won 110 of the 205 seats and formed the first elected government in 32 years.

Civil strikes HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nepal&action=edit&section=23” o “Edit section: Civil strikes” edit
In 1992, in a situation of economic crisis and chaos, with spiraling prices as a result of the implementation of changes in policy of the new Congress government, the radical left stepped up their political agitation. A Joint People’s Agitation Committee was set up by the various groups.17 A general strike was called for April 6.

Violent incidents began to occur on the evening before the strike. The Joint People’s Agitation Committee had called for a 30-minute ‘lights out’ in the capital, and violence erupted outside  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bir_Hospital” o “Bir Hospital” Bir Hospital when activists tried to enforce the ‘lights out’. At dawn on April 6, clashes between strike activists and police, outside a police station in Pulchok ( HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patan,_Lalitpur” o “Patan, Lalitpur” Patan), left two activists dead.

Later in the day, a mass rally of the Agitation Committee at Tundikhel in the capital Kathmandu was attacked by police forces. As a result, riots broke out and the Nepal Telecommunications building was set on fire; police opened fire at the crowd, killing several persons. The Human Rights Organisation of Nepal estimated that 14 persons, including several onlookers, had been killed in police firing.18When promised land reforms failed to appear, people in some districts started to organize to enact their own land reform and to gain some power over their lives in the face of usurious landlords. However, this movement was repressed by the Nepali government, in “Operation Romeo” and “Operation Kilo Sera II”, which took the lives of many of the leading activists of the struggle. As a result, many witnesses to this repression became radicalized.

Nepalese Civil War HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nepal&action=edit&section=24” o “Edit section: Nepalese Civil War” edit
Main article: Nepalese Civil WarIn March 1997, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) started a bid to replace the parliamentary monarchy with a people’s new democratic republic, through a Maoist revolutionary strategy known as the people’s war, which led to the Nepalese Civil War. Led by Dr.  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baburam_Bhattarai” o “Baburam Bhattarai” Baburam Bhattarai and  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushpa_Kamal_Dahal” o “Pushpa Kamal Dahal” Pushpa Kamal Dahal (also known as “Prachanda”), the insurgency began in five districts in Nepal:  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolpa” o “Rolpa” Rolpa,  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rukum” o “Rukum” Rukum,  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jajarkot” o “Jajarkot” Jajarkot, Gorkha, and Sindhuli. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) established a provisional “people’s government” at the district level in several locations.

On June 1, 2001, Prince Dipendra, went on a shooting-spree, assassinating 9 members of the royal family, including King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya, before shooting himself. Due to his survival, he temporarily became king before dying of his wounds, after which Prince Gyanendra (HMG King Birendra’s brother) inherited the throne, as per tradition. Meanwhile, the rebellion escalated, and in October 2002 the king temporarily deposed the government and took complete control of it. A week later he reappointed another government, but the country was still very unstable.

A family in a Maoist-controlled valley, 2005
In the face of unstable governments and a siege on the Kathmandu Valley in August 2004, popular support for the monarchy began to wane. On February 1, 2005, Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers, declaring a “state of emergency” to quash the revolution. Politicians were placed under house arrest, phone and internet lines were cut, and freedom of the press was severely curtailed.

The king’s new regime made little progress in his stated aim to suppress the insurgents. Municipal elections in February 2006 were described by the European Union as “a backward step for democracy”, as the major parties boycotted the election and some candidates were forced to run for office by the army.19 In April 2006 strikes and street protests in Kathmandu forced the king to reinstate the parliament. A seven-party coalition resumed control of the government and stripped the king of most of his powers. As of 15 January 2007, Nepal was governed by a unicameral legislature under an interim constitution. On December 24, 2007, seven parties, including the former Maoist rebels and the ruling party, agreed to abolish the monarchy and declare Nepal the Federal Republic.20 In the elections held on 10 April 2008, the Maoists secured a simple majority, with the prospect of forming a government to rule the proposed ‘Republic of Nepal’.

Federal Democratic Republic HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nepal;action=edit;section=25” o “Edit section: Federal Democratic Republic” edit
On May 28, 2008, the newly-elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240-year-old monarchy. The motion for the abolition of the monarchy was carried by a huge majority: out of 564 members present in the assembly, 560 voted for the motion while 4 members voted against it.21 On June 11, 2008, ex-King Gyanendra left the palace.22 Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali Congress became the first President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal on July 23, 2008. Similarly, the Constituent Assembly elected Pushpa Kamal Dahal (popularly known as  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prachanda” o “Prachanda” Prachanda) of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as the first Republican Prime Minister on August 15, 2008, favoring him over  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sher_Bahadur_Deuba” o “Sher Bahadur Deuba” Sher Bahadur Deuba of the Nepali Congress Party.

After failing to draft a constitution before the deadline, the existing Constituent Assembly was dissolved HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Words_to_watch” l “Unsupported_attributions” o “Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch” by whom? (28 May 2012) and a new interim government (2013-2014) formed under the Prime-Ministership of the Chief Justice of Nepal, Supreme Court judge  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khil_Raj_Regmi” o “Khil Raj Regmi” Khil Raj Regmi. In the Constituent Assembly election of November 2013 the Nepali Congress won the largest share of the votes but failed to get a majority. The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) (CPN (UML)) and the Nepali Congress negotiated to form a consensus government, and  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sushil_Koirala” o “Sushil Koirala” Sushil Koirala of the Nepali Congress was elected as Prime Minister (February 2014) with support from the CPN (UML).

Protests over the Constitution of 2015edit
Minority ethnic groups like  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhesi_people” o “Madhesi people” Madhesi and  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tharu_people” o “Tharu people” Tharu have protested vigorously against the constitution which came into effect on September 20, 2015.23 They point out that their concerns have not been addressed and there are few explicit protections for their ethnic groups in the document. At least 56 civilians and 11 police died in clashes over the draft constitution.24 In response to the Madhesi protests, India suspended vital supplies to landlocked Nepal, citing insecurity and violence in border areas.25 It has been alleged HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Words_to_watch” l “Unsupported_attributions” o “Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch” by whom? that India’s denial of petroleum and medicine to Nepal constituted a violation of human rights. The mainquantify reason for doing this was because India allegedly wants control over Nepal.26So, the word ‘Nepal’ was derived from the name of the sage ‘Ne’ and ‘Pala’ – hiswork, to protect the land. … They were called ‘Nepa’, so, after the name of the dynasty who ruled over it, the country was named as ‘Nepal’. 3. ‘Nepal’ might also be derived from ‘Newar’, one of the ancient tribes living in Kathmandu valley.

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