1- INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

1- INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (ICU)
ICU is protected department at the hospital have two section one is regular that used to keep patients with a critical situation like Stroke, coma and second section called isolation section used to keep patient with infection.
The most important instrumentation at ICU:
1.1 Ventilator
( Class A)
It is one of life support devices that help an Unconscious patient to breathe and helps patients with lunges problems to breathe by them own.
Ventilator includes a breath delivery unit (BDU) that controls ventilation and a graphic user interface (GUI) that monitors and displays ventilator and monitored data (see Figure1.1). The ventilator supplies mandatory (pressure or volume controlled) or spontaneous breaths (inspiratory flows of up to 200 L/min, with or without pressure support) with a preset oxygen concentration. Breaths can be pressure- or flow-triggered (using Flow-by).

Figure 1.1.1 ventilator components
The possible troubleshoots at ventilator it can be at any units
1- Graphic User Interface (GUI): Break at a screen or at buttons.
2- Breath Delivery Unit (BDU): Oxygen sensor, leakage, block out at a patient circuit.
3- Backup Power Source (BBPS): Expiring of battery life, compressor.
PPM of ventilator
Checking of the ventilator setting by two steps
1-Extended Self Test (EST)
This test used to check all part of ventilator like a battery, compressor, buttons,…….etc.
It is done by the biomedical engineer.
2-Short Self Test (SST)
This test used to check the patient circuit if its work to deliver the oxygen to the patient or not.
It can be done by both users and engineers.

1.2 Continues Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT)
It is a device designed to support the recovery of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury at ICU by using slowly process to prevent injury and pain.

Figure 1.2.1 Continues Renal Replacement Therapy components
Molecular Transport Mechanisms

1- Ultrafiltration

Figure1.2.2 ultrafiltration

2- Diffusion= Hemodialysis
The movement of solutes only from an area of higher concentration to lower one.

Figure 1.2.3 Diffusion
3- Convection
The forced movement of fluid with dissolved solutes (the fluid will drag the solutes).

Figure1.2.4 Convection
4- Adsorption : Filter viability
Trans-membrane pressure (TMP)
• Pressure exerted on filter: membrane during operation
• Reflects pressure difference: between fluid and blood compartments of filter.
• Calculated by CRRT device

Figure1.2.5 TMP

The possible troubleshoots at CRRT
1- Block out at any pumps
2- Incorrect connection tubes lead to blocking the tubes then no fluid goes to a patient
3- Broken sensor or valves
4- Broken carries because put heavy weights on it.

1.3 Defoliator (DC shocks)