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1.2.2. Characteristics and Features
Postmodernism erahas been characterized by many techniques, each one of them have its own rules and functions. However, the following are the most important features that have been used by the figures of postmodernism.
Pastiche
Pastiche is one of the most popular technique in postmodern literature , many postmodern authors applied this technique in their writing .Pastiche is the combination of different styles or genres in one literary work.
Related to postmodern intersexuality, pastiche means to combine, or “paste” together, multiple elements. In Postmodernist literature, many postmodern authors combined, or “pasted” elements of previous genres and styles of literature to create a new narrative voice, or to comment on the writing of their contemporaries.(“What is postmodernism”)
Intertexuality
Intertexuality is a technique related to the postmodernism period, postmodern poets use intersexuality in their literary work in order to combine texts or to shape the meaning of the text to another one. Intertexuality is a technique emerged by the poststructuralist Julia Kristeva in 1966.Intertextuality tends to build a connection between texts and links the literary works.
Intertexuality is the shaping of texts’ meanings by other texts. It can include an author’s borrowing and transformation of a prior text or to a reader’s referencing of one text in reading another. The term “intersexuality” has, itself, been borrowed and transformed many times since it was coined by poststructuralist Julia Kristeva in 1966(“Intertextuality-Characteristics”).
The poet John Donne once wrote that “no man is an island,” and for postmodernists, no text is an island. Postmodernism is all about the connections between texts, including the various ways in which one text references another (or many others). There are all kinds of techniques that authors can use in order to highlight these links, including pastiche, parody, quotes, and direct references, as well as subtler nods to other material. What these techniques have in common is that they’re examples of intertextuality(“Intertextuality-Characteristics”).

Metafiction
Postmodern poets adapted feature metafictionin their literary works, which is the awareness of the reader of its fictionality, postmodern poets use this feature in order to jump in time , or to make a successful shift in narrative.
Many postmodern authors feature metafiction in their writing, which, essentially, is writing about writing, an attempt to make the reader aware of its fictionality, and, sometimes, the presence of the author. Authors sometimes use this technique to allow for flagrant shifts in narrative, impossible jumps in time, or to maintain emotional distance as a narrator(“What is postmodernism”).
Temporal distortion
Temporal distortion is a technique related to postmodernism, postmodern authors use this feature in different ways, sometimes it is considered as an irony, sometimes it is used in order to jump in time. The use of this technique is not fixed; it is related to what it is suitable for the situation or the literary work.
Temporal distortion in postmodern fiction is used in a variety of ways, often for the sake of irony. In this literary the author may jump forwards or backwards in time, or there may be cultural and historical references that do not fit (“What is postmodernism”).
Paranoia
The term Paranoia means that there is an order in this life , nothing is goes alone , this ordering system is the cause behind the miss order and the noise in this world , but for postmodernist , there is no order in this life , and looking for order is worthless.
Paranoia is the belief that there’s an ordering system behind the chaos of the world is another recurring postmodern theme. For the postmodernist, no ordering system exists, so a search for order is fruitless and absurd(” What is postmodernism”).
Magical realism
Magical realism as a technique has an important part in postmodern literature. Magical realism means to display imaginary parts or unfamiliar elements into something familiar and true for the reader to engage with him.
Arguably the most important postmodern technique, magical realism is the introduction of fantastic or impossible elements into a narrative that it seems real or normal( “What is postmodernism”).
Fragmentation
Fragmentation is a popular technique in postmodern literature , it is very used in this period, authors used for the sake of interruption, characters , plot, themes, and so on .
Fragmentation is another important aspect of postmodern literature. Various elements, concerning plot, characters, themes, imagery and factual references are fragmented and dispersed throughout the entire work. In general, there is an interrupted sequence of events, character development and action which can at first glance look modern. Fragmentation purports, however, to depict a metaphysically unfounded, chaotic universe. It can occur in language, sentence structure or grammar(“Postmodern literature”).
Historiographicmetafiction
Historiographicmetafiction is not far of that metafiction , the different is that historiographicmetafictionmakes the true parts and element in a fiction image.
This term was created by Linda Hutcheon to refer to novels that fictionalize actual historical events and characters. Notable examples include Thomas Pynchon’s Mason and Dixon, for example, features a scene in which George Washington smokes Pot(” What is postmodernism”).
Fabulation
Fabulation is a technique related to postmodern literature, postmodern authors use this features instead of other techniques of postmodernism like metafictionand link it to other features.
Fabulation is a term sometimes used interchangeably with metafiction and relates to pastiche and Magic Realism. It is a rejection of realism which embraces the notion that literature is a created work and not bound by notions of mimesis and verisimilitude(“Postmodern literature”).
Maximalism
Maximalism is a feature in postmodernism; it tends to reduce the boundary or the limits concerning what the text should be.
Where minimalism is all about making things neat, tidy, and low key, maximalism goes against the grain by embracing excess. And for many postmodernists, maximalism is where it’s at.Because postmodernism doesn’t stick to any hard and fast rules, its texts can be any length. Still, some of its best-loved texts tend to be on the long side (coughDFWcough), and it’s usually maximalism that’s to blame—er…thank? Postmodernists just love to describe stuff.As with so many postmodern characteristics, maximalism gives the author the chance to experiment. Since we’re living in an age in which the line between authentic and inauthentic has become blurred (so say the pomos), we may as well just throw everything into the mix rather than getting bogged down with what’s real/false or certain/uncertain (“Maximalism”).
Post -world war II
Postmodernism emerged during the world war II. So , we can say that postmodernism has no exact day, it is just known by period of the world war II, in addition to that its innovative techniques.
As you might imagine, postmodernism isn’t big on boundaries and limits—which means there’s not really a set date we can point to and say, “That’s it! That’s exactly when postmodernism began!” (Bummer, too—we love shouting stuff like that.) In fact, some folks have argued that postmodernism is more about an attitude than a historical period or a certain set of techniques. But come on: we’re literary scholars, so it’d be helpful to have some sense of how and when the movements came about. And for postmodernism, we’re gonna go with…World War II(“Post world war ii” ).